It is a law of nature that every girl or woman regularly bleeds from the uterus on a regular basis for three to seven days per month, which we call menstruation or menstruation. Menstruation is the manifestation of all the complex actions inside the female body.
As long as it’s in moderation, everything is fine. But complications occur when there is more bleeding than usual. And this complication is further complicated by women’s ignorance, fear, prejudice and shame. In today’s modern world where all forms of treatment exist, they remain silent without going to the doctor. It is our responsibility to rescue women from the shackles of shame and superstition and bring them back to a healthy and normal life.
What do we mean by normal?
Although all adult women in the world have menstruation, very few of them know about it. Before discussing abnormal menstruation, we need to understand which is the normal menstrual cycle. And for this, it is necessary to have some knowledge about female reproductive system. The female reproductive system consists primarily of a uterus or uterus, with two tubes running from one side to the other, called the fallopian tubes. And at the bottom, the uterus is exposed outside through the vagina or vagina. At the end of the fallopian tube are two ovaries on either side. From each one of them an ovum or ovum is released every month and enters the uterus through the fallopian tube to be fertilized by the male sperm. And the time is the 13th or 14th day of each menstrual cycle.
The effects of the two hormones estrogen and progesterone have already changed the uterus. The walls of the thin uterus have become nourished, new blood vessels have formed there. If the sperm enters the uterus within two-three days, then the process of conception begins. If this is not the case, then on the 28th to 30th day, the nourishing wall of the uterus, along with its blood vessels, becomes detached from the main wall of the uterus, and this process continues for the next three to seven days. This is the time of bleeding, which we call menstruation or menstruation. And this whole process of 28 or 30 days is called menstrual cycle.
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Bleeding during normal menstruation lasts for three to seven days. However, the first two days of bleeding is a little more. After that the blood volume gradually decreases and it repeats again after 28 to 30 days. And if this normal rule is any other way then we can call it abnormal menstrual cycle.
Types of abnormal bleeding
We can mainly divide such abnormalities into two parts. One is the physiological problems of various organs of the reproductive system, such as inflammation, tumors or cancer. And the other one we can call dysfunctional uterine bleeding, where there is no physiological problem, the problem is in the activity of the menstrual cycle. In this case regular menstruation is disrupted and there is a lot of bleeding.
In the first case, any type of disease in the ovaries, uterus and vagina or vagina অস্ব any of these causes abnormal bleeding. However, in this case menstruation is regular. The main diseases seen in these places are cervical polyp, cervical erosion, cancer, uterine tumor, retained placenta, endometritis, ovarian tumor etc. Now we will try to get a general idea about these diseases.
The lower part of the uterus is commonly known as the cervix. And cervical polyp is a type of vascular growth in the cervix. In this case a small amount of bleeding occurs at regular intervals. Any kind of pressure on this tumor, especially during intercourse or defecation, causes slight bleeding. The treatment is very simple. This tumor can be removed with a small operation and very rarely requires hospitalization.
Inflammation of the cervix can lead to this condition, where irregularly small amounts of bleeding occur. In this case the cervix is inflamed. Red, swollen and bleeding when touched. Cervical erosion can lead to complications such as cancer, which requires prompt examination and treatment. Biopsy is the easiest way to find out if you have cancer. Here a small portion is cut from the cervix and examined under a microscope.
The lining of the uterus to nourish the fetus during pregnancy. It comes out with the pulse during labor, which is called placenta. Some parts of the placenta may remain in the uterus, even after a miscarriage. This condition is called retained placenta. In this case, there may be a dangerous amount of bleeding from the uterus.
Different types of tumors
In girls, the most common cancer after breast cancer is uterine cancer. In addition, there are some other tumors in the uterus and ovaries, such as polyps, fibromyomas, fibroids, tuberculosis, etc. In these cases there is abnormal bleeding from the uterus. Bleeding after menopause or menopause is an indication of uterine cancer, and if such bleeding is present, it is important to examine it thoroughly to make sure it is cancerous.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
In this case the various organs of the reproductive system remain healthy, but the menstrual cycle becomes irregular due to hormonal disorders. This type of bleeding is very common in girls during or after the onset of menstruation or before menopause or menopause. And the reason for this is that the right proportion of hormones is not secreted at this time. It is also closely linked to the patient’s mental state. Emotional agitation or excitement, new places, etc. call for such extra bleeding.
In addition to hormones and problems with various organs of the reproductive system, other organs of the body also play a role in such abnormal bleeding, such as: various diseases of the thyroid or pituitary gland, heart failure, hypertension, etc.
Criteria for diagnosis
All patients need to be thoroughly examined to confirm cancer or other physical causes. Younger girls are more likely to have dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Bleeding should always be viewed with suspicion, especially in women in their forties and fifties. Because it can be an early sign of cancer. Diagnosis is possible in most cases through a thorough examination.
Cytology or Pap test
This test is done to diagnose cancer in the cervix. This is a very simple and inexpensive method and it only takes a few minutes to do. All women over the age of 30 should have this test every six months.
Other tests include a blood test to see if there is a problem with a particular blood clot. In addition, laparoscopy, kaldoscopy, hystero sulfingography — these tests can also be used to diagnose many diseases at an early stage.
If the examination shows abnormal bleeding due to physiological reasons, then the treatment should be done in the same way. In case of polyps, fibroids, retained placenta etc. operation is required. Its role in medicine is important. If such a condition occurs during or after menopause, it is best to remove the uterus. In that case there should be no hesitation. In the case of cancer, major surgery is not possible. Then treatment is possible with radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
Abnormal bleeding in young girls is mostly functional, the patient needs rest and reassurance is enough. In most cases, it heals automatically with age. In case of anemia, iron, vitamin-B complex etc. should be given. With proper treatment for tuberculosis, high blood pressure, heart failure, etc., there is no need to do anything special to stop abnormal bleeding. The rest of the women may need hormone treatment, but it should always be done under the supervision of a doctor.
In the end, girls need to let go of prejudice, shame, and fear, and if they have any problems, they should seek medical attention immediately. Otherwise it is very natural for a complex situation to arise from the slightest difficulty.