Cataract (English: Cataract) is an eye problem or disease where the lens of the eye becomes opaque or opaque, resulting in difficulty seeing.

Cataracts can occur for four main reasons:
1. Age related cataract
2. Due to other ailments of the body except the eyes
(Cataract in systemic disease)
3. Secondary or Complicated cataract
4. Due to trauma
(Traumatic cataract)

1. Age related cataract

As we age, the human body undergoes various complex biochemical changes. As a result, the lens of the eye gradually becomes opaque and obstructs vision. If this visual impairment is present in small amounts, it can be continued for some time by using glasses. Cataracts begin to mature slowly and after a certain period of time the cataract has to be removed through surgery. Cataracts are divided into three groups based on how mature they are:
Immature cataract- Cataracts are usually gray in color
Mature cataract- The color of cataract is pearly white
Hypermature cataract- Cataracts are milky white
2. Cataract in systemic disease
Diseases of the body that can cause cataracts:
Diabetes mellitus- Diabetes
Myotonic dystrophy- It is a type of muscle disease
Atopic dermatitis- It is a skin disease
3. Secondary or Complicated cataract
The main disease is also in the eye, which later causes cataracts:
Acute congestive angle-closure
High myopia
Hereditary fundus dystrophy
4. Traumatic cataract
Cataracts are more likely to occur in the injured eye. So it is one of the reasons for cataracts. If something gets inside the eye, if hit by a heavy object, infrared radiation (IR) or any other radiation (X-ray) can cause cataracts.

Whatever the cause of cataracts, if it is not possible to do daily work with glasses, then cataracts should be removed by surgery. There are three main types of surgery:

1. Phacoemulsification
It is the latest technology, cataracts are removed through very small holes here. Then the artificial lens (Foldable Intra-Ocular Lens) is added. The advantage of this method is: the need for eye stitches is usually not reduced, the patient recovers quickly and the chances of post-operative complications are very low. Extremely expensive phaco machine and requires training and skills to operate it, so this operation is somewhat expensive.
2. SICS (Small Incision Cataract Surgery)
In this method, the cataract is brought out by cutting the white part of the eye specially. Then the artificial lens (Foldable or Rigid Intra-Ocular Lens) is added. Since the cut area is very small and there is a special valve arrangement during cutting, there is no need to sew on the cut area.
ECCE (Extra Capsular Cataract Extraction)
In this case the cataract is removed by cutting along the middle of the transparent cornea and white part of the eye (sclera). Then the artificial lens (Foldable or Rigid Intra-Ocular Lens) is added. The cut area is sealed with selai.

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